Bauxite is attacked by soda, at high temperature and under high pressure. The liquor obtained, sodium aluminate, is freed of its impurities, then diluted and cooled, which causes precipitation of hydrated aluminum oxide. A white powder, alumina, is then recovered. Most of the alumina (~ 90%) is used to produce the metal aluminum. The remaining 10%, sometimes called specialty alumina, have various non-metallurgical uses such as: water treatment, manufacture of refractory products, ceramics, abrasives, special glasses, etc. Alumina production is largely concentrated around ore extraction areas: Australia is the world's largest producer ahead of China and South America.